from thermal power plants by s. i. pavlenko-use of fly ash, blast furnace slag and chemical . Concrete industry specifications are more commonly including provisions for slag cement use. The proportions used in concrete-making vary quite considerably and the price of the material is key when it comes to producing a cubic metre of concrete to the required specification at the lowest possible cost. “The effectiveness of class F fly ash in controlling expansion due to ASR is well established….However, the effect of fly ash varies considerably as the composition of the ash varies.”, -Design and Control of Concrete, PCA (r.1) Pg. Pozzolans are siliceous or siliceous/alumina materials possessing the ability to form cementitious compounds when mixed with lime (calcium hydroxide, or Ca(OH) 2) and water. Clinker is a material usually made of limestone and minerals, which are crushed and ground together, then heated. www.tylerley.com I personally have specified using a cement made up of 90% GBFS and 10% hydrated lime for cemented mine backfill. The spirit of St. Louis Airport in Chesterfield, MO placed airport paving with blended cement (Type I (SM)) and Class C Fly Ash for a more durable and resilient concrete. The shrinkage of fly ash concrete is very less. the %Na 2O was added at 4, 6 and 8%, relative to the binder weight. But it wasn’t until the 1980s that it became commonplace. (photo credit 5). Blastfurnace slag, a by-product of the iron-making process, is rapidly quenched if it is to be used in the manufacture of GGBS. The alkaline activator used was a combination of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution. was used for making geopolymer concrete. Fly Ash is the most widely used SCM in concrete and is a byproduct of coal combustion in electric power generating plants. Fly Ash has very small particles which makes the concrete highly dense and reduces the permeability of concrete. When a mix includes 20% fly ash, this will provide savings of 3.5% in cost. More recent developments have shown that certain admixtures can provide the required air void systems in concrete using blended cements. Chemically, fly ash is a pozzolan. Table 1 shows the chemical compositions of the fly ash and slag. The alkaline activator used was a combination of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution. Fly ash can be used as prime material in many cement-based products, such as poured concrete, concrete block, and brick. Fresh and hardened properties of conventional concrete and blended cement concrete are tested and compared. up to 70% of fly ash by weight of cement can be added. Briefly it improves the workabilit Furthermore, their use reduces the consumption of portland cement per unit volume of concrete. Additionally, the concrete industry is more widely accepting specifications that include slag cement and slag blended cements, making the demand for the product expected to rise in upcoming years. Creating concrete with more consistent results helps ensure structures can withstand freeze thaw conditions, mitigate ASR and sulfate attack, and helps the concrete perform to its peak potential. Slag and Fly Ash based Geopolymer Concrete . The NPCA goes on to say, “Regardless of the current supply status, the days of having an affordable, reliable source of fly ash are nearly over.” (r.2). Low calcium Class F (ASTM C 618) fly ash was used for making geopolymer concrete. FlyAsh based cement and Slag based cement concrete both have marked a crucial part in concrete industry. The results indicated that for 0/100 pastes, the highest PROPERTIES OF ALKALI-ACTIVATED FLY ASH CONCRETE BLENDED WITH SLAG A. M. Rashad * * alaarashad@yahoo.com Received: December 2012 Accepted: March 2013 Building Materials and … Thanks! The combustion process can also vary greatly from source to source. To check for suppliers in your area, use the SCA’s slag cement locator. According to ‘National Precast Concrete Association’ (Published in: Using Fly Ash in Concrete), for the normal concrete work,15 -35% of fly ash by weight of cement and for the mass concreting work like dams, retaining walls etc. Fly ash and Slag will typically be 18% cheaper than Portland cement. When a mix includes 20% fly ash, this will provide savings of 3.5% in cost. When specifying your Concrete Mix Designs, are you aware of the cost implications of pozzolans or supplementary cementitious materials included in your mix? include ground granulated blast furnace slag and fly ashes with high calcium contents (such fly ashes display both pozzolanic and hydraulic behavior). Fly ash is less reactive, especially during the first few days of curing when less calcium hydroxide is generated. Fly ash can replace up to 50% of the Portland cement required to manufacture concrete. Index Terms— Fly-ash, Slag, Micro-Silica, Concrete, Compressive strength, Cement, Coarse Aggregate, Pozzolanic, Cementitious —————————— —————————— 1 INTRODUCTION In today’s world, almost all the structures have been found to have concrete as an important building material which is a mixture of sand, cement, coarse aggregate and water. Due to its generally slower rate of hydration, fly ash also lowers the heat of hydration and is important in mass concrete structures, such as large foundations, bridges, dams and piers. For this reason their properties are frequently compared to each other by mix designers seeking to optimize concrete mixtures. This means that outside moisture will not penetrate it as easily. Most concrete produced today includes one or both of these materials. These cements can be used with additional fly ash and slag added at the concrete batch. It may assist in improving sulphate resistance of blended cements in some applications. Fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) were used as binders and combination of sodium hydroxide (8M) and sodium silicate … 2.3 Aggregates . gypsum for the synthesis of calcium . When mixed with lime (calcium hydroxide), pozzolans combine to form cementitious compounds. Generally the finer the pozzolan particles are, the more reactive they are. sulfoaluminate-based cements by g. belz, j. beretka, m. marroccoli, l. santoro, n. sherman, and g. l. valenti-mexican natural pozzolans and the evaluation The addition of fly ash in concrete gives numerous advantages.  These are observed in both fresh and hardened concrete. While fly ash has long been considered the “go-to” SCM for many ready-mixed concrete producers and specifiers in US markets, slag cement’s combination of availability, performance and environmental benefits is quickly gaining converts. Today, slag cement (commonly referred to as slag) is regarded as an important part of the answer to the fly-ash spot shortages faced by ready-mix concrete producers, as well as the performance challenges faced by architects and engineers. Table 1 shows the chemical compositions of the fly ash and slag. Fly Ash: Concrete Applications Fly ash was mixed in the pours of Hoover Dam, and has held up just fine for more than seven decades. They are often added to concrete to make the mixtures more economical, reduce permeability, increase strength, or influence other properties. Fly ash is tested and the properties are compared with each other. He indicated that as a result of the report, the design engineers changed the concrete pavement specification to require 25%-35% Type F or N fly ash (or 40%-50% ground granulated blast-furnace slag) in all concrete for pavements, and they anticipate requiring the same percentages for all other concrete. "We have added this special chemical requirement for the fly ash with the goal of … To learn more about blended cements and other slag cement use topics, browse the SCA’s index of technical information sheets here at SlagCement.org. According to the National Precast Concrete Association (NPCA), “With energy trends resulting in a move away from coal-fired plants, fly ash availability has been significantly reduced.” While the concrete industry has begun to find alternative supply options for fly ash, these options create more variations in fly ash from source to source. Road construction projects using PCC can use a great deal of concrete, and substituting fly ash provides significant economic benefits. Slag cement (Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag) and fly ash (Coal Combustion Product) are the most commonly used supplementary cementitious materials in construction today. Some concrete manufacturers had their fly ash supplies cut off completely during these summer months, but the fly ash supply did come back online at the end of the season. Fine and coarse aggregates should meet the requirements of CSA A23.1. concrete based on high-calcium fly ash and slag . Fly ash and steel slag, which are byproducts from thermal power and steel plants respectively, have been used to manufacture geopolymer concrete (GPC). While fly ash is still very efficient in certain cases, its chemical structure can vary from source to source and from season to season within a single source. However, the cracking potential of concrete is determined not only by autogenous shrinkage but also by elastic modulus, creep/relaxation and tensile strength of the material. Because of the more consistent structure of slag cement, it produces cement paste and concrete with more consistent performance results. Fly ash and ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS) are regarded as conventional cement constituents in much of the world. Pozzolans that are commonly used in concrete include fly ash, silica fume and a variety of natural pozzolans such as calcined clay and shale, and volcanic ash. One option is to design a concrete mix with fly ash or slag replacing some of the portland cement. The concrete mixture generates a very low heat of hydration which prevents thermal cracking. It can add greater strength to the building. Hello, I'm wondering how much fly ash or slag is used to replace cement in concrete? While they are commonly used and similar in many ways, these materials produce different effects on concrete performance and this document will explore those differences. SCM's that are hydraulic in behavior include ground granulated blast furnace slag and fly ashes with high calcium contents (such fly ashes display both pozzolanic and hydraulic behavior). Fly Ash: Fly Ash is the most widely used SCM in concrete and is a byproduct of coal combustion in electric power generating plants. Slag cement and fly ash are the two most common SCMs used in concrete. One of the most common uses for fly ash cement is as an additive to form concrete. But over the years, the concrete industry discovered that it has qualitative advantages. Fly ash can be used as prime material in many cement-based products, such as poured concrete, concrete block, and brick. Fly ash is a byproduct from coal-fired power plants that is frequently used as an admixture in concrete to replace a portion of the Portland cement. aggregate, copper slag. Abstract:-This thesis report is about experimental investigation done on various strength and durability parameters of Alkali Activated Slag (AAS) And Fly ash(FA) Based Geopolymer Concrete and comparing it with nominal mix conventional concrete of grade M40. Fly ash makes the concrete more workable. Fly ash has been added in concrete as a cement extender since about 1965. sulfoaluminate-based cements by g. belz, j. beretka, m. marroccoli, l. santoro, n. sherman, and g. l. valenti-mexican natural pozzolans and the evaluation As illustrated, the undisturbed fly ash phase has large voids, irregular shape, and strong dispersion, which can fill the concrete void and enhance concrete strength. 8. This paper presents the fresh and hardened concrete properties with fly ash (FA) and copper slag (CS). Conclusion of this paper will be based on the test results and comparative statement. From the environmental point of view, it is plausible if low-quality coal fly ash and slag, biomass fly ash (Wang et al., 2008) or other amorphous aluminosilicates can also be used in construction industry. Fly ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, silica fume, and natural pozzolans, such as calcined shale, calcined clay or metakaolin, are materials that, when used in conjunc- tion with portland or blended cement, contribute to the properties of the hardened concrete … The use of fly ash or GGBF slag in concrete will probably increase its demand for air-entraining admixtures. be only marginal. Finally, lime is a cement on its own and was used to make polished concrete floors at Catal Huyuk in Turkey around … – Headwaters Resources (r.2). What does that mean for your concrete? Adding fly ash to a concrete mix can affect it in the following ways. Fly Ash is a by product of power generation that not only offers environmental benefit through the reuse of waste materials, but also provides enhanced benefits when added to concrete Fly Ash can be combined with other materials to produce high quality and economical results in concrete such as pre-mix, pavements, sub-bases and dams. Fly ash has also been used as embankment and mine fill, and it ha… By analyzing the compressive strength of concrete mixed with ash and slag at different mixing ratios, the optimum content was determined as fly ash substitution rate of 30% and slag substitution rate of 20%. This video compares the performance of fly ash, slag, and silica fume on fresh and hardened properties of concrete. Since the coal source defines the chemistry of the resulting fly ash , energy requirements demand blending of coal sources, and operating conditions change, the quality of the resulting fly ash not only varies regionally but can also vary seasonally at the same plant/location/source.”, -Nick Popoff – SCA Member Company Representative, The figure on the left shows the chemical structure of slag cement with the figure on the right showing fly ash. The optimum mixture proportions for ternary blends, as with other concrete, will be dependent on the final use of the concrete, construction requirements and seasonal considerations. Fly Ash concrete is resistant to acid and sulphate attacks. High fly ash concrete exhibits less bleeding and shrinkage than straight cement mixes. plant. Twenty four concrete mixtures are arrived by cement is partially replaced by FA from 0 to 30% with 10% increment and natural sand is replaced by CS from 0 to 100% at 20% increment. …Fly ash, on the other hand is the result of the combustion of pulverized coal and coal chemistry has a wide range of chemistry from source to source. Fly ash can be used to improve workability and pumpability of concrete. It also makes the concrete less permeable. Contractors and cement suppliers will each have their own opinions when it comes to the materials they prefer to use. Concrete made with fly ash requires less mix water, and bleeds less than portland cement concrete. Fly ash can be used either as mineral admixture or as a partial replacement of cement or as a partial replacement of fine aggregates or total replacement of fine aggregate and as supplementary addition to achieve different properties of concrete. Fly ash concrete is more likely to provide satisfactory scaling performance if the water-cementitious materials ratio does not exceed 0.45 and the level of fly ash does not exceed about 25 percent. The concrete mixture generates a very low heat of hydration which prevents thermal cracking. At first, it was used as a cost-saving measure. Fly ash is one of the construction industry's most commonly used pozzolans. Although Fly ash replacement reduces strength properties, it improves workability, reduces drying shrinkage and increases freeze–thaw resistance of fiber reinforced concrete. gypsum for the synthesis of calcium . Calcium sulfate is added, and the clinker is … As those admixtures are not expensive, increase in cost of the concrete will. Fig1: fly ash dumped yard Table: 1 Chemical composition of Fly ash, Copper slag and The growing trend for slag cement use in industry specifications—combined with fly ash spot shortages and increased need for quality SCMs—will … Giving savings of up to 9% in cement cost with a 50% slag to cement content ratio. If a yard of concrete is roughly 4,000 lbs, my understanding is fly ash might replace 20% of the cement (3,200 lbs cement, 800 lbs fly ash) while slag might replace closer to 50% (2,000 lbs slag, 2,000 lbs cement). This can affect how the fly ash works with other materials in concrete mix design. Fly ash and slag cement work well together in certain applications and can be used to achieve higher strength gains, corrosion resistance and lowered concrete permeability. One of the most common uses of fly ash is in Portland cement concrete pavement or PCC pavement. Slag cement and fly ash also work well together in blended cements. Fly ash and ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS) are regarded as conventional cement constituents in much of the world. Giving savings of up to 9% in cement cost with a 50% slag to cement content ratio. The Slag Cement Association (SCA) is the leading source of knowledge on slag cement and slag blended cements. One of the most common uses for fly ash cement is as an additive to form concrete. The proportions used in concrete-making vary quite considerably and the price of the material is key when it comes to producing a cubic metre of concrete to the required specification at the lowest possible cost. Please enter this 5 digit unlock code on the web page. Road construction projects using PCC can use a great deal of concrete, and substituting fly ash provides significant economic benefits. It is a common practice that high-quality fly ash and slag are often added in commercial concrete to partially replace Portland cement. Almost all of them seem to have been effectively used in mixtures with cement according to their chemical and mechanical characteristics in the field of civil work. Supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash, slag and silica fume enable the concrete industry to use hundreds of millions of tons of byproduct materials that would otherwise be landfilled as waste. (r.1). 12 issues of the leading cement industry magazine, your choice of complimentary handbook, plus unlimited access to CemNet.com News, Articles and HD Videos. The first category included specimens in four subcategories in which FA replaced ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) in the binder at ratios of 0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% by weight. The pastes were cured for 24 h at 75 °C and then 28 days at 20 °C. Like slag, fly ash is not a new development in the technology of concrete mixtures. In low W/CM applications such as paving, mixtures with 15 percent fly ash and 30 percent slag cement component have been used successfully. He indicated that as a result of the report, the design engineers changed the concrete pavement specification to require 25%-35% Type F or N fly ash (or 40%-50% ground granulated blast-furnace slag) in all concrete for pavements, and they anticipate requiring the … Slag cement (Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag) and fly ash (Coal Combustion Product) are the most commonly used supplementary cementitious materials in construction today. Alternative materials have been used in place of fly ash, and at least one slag material has now been approved for TxDOT paving projects. Recommended Percentages of Fly Ash and GGBF Slag … Slag is generally used in higher percentages than fly ash, commonly constituting between 30% and 45% of the cementitious material in concrete, while some comprise as high as 70% or more of the cementitious material in a mix. By Cora Wilder Fly ash is a common concrete admixture. To learn more about the SCA’s programs, resources, and events, visit the associations newly re-designed website at www.SlagCement.org. On Resistance to Chemical Attack. 163, “Used in the proper proportions, slag cement can give a Type I cement the sulfate resisting properties of a Type II cement (usually 25 to 50 percent slag cement replacement for portland), and it can give a Type I or a Type II cement the sulfate resisting properties of a Type V cement (usually 50 to 65 percent slag cement replacement for portland).”, Ternary concrete mixtures include three different types of cementitious materials. If, for example, you are using a 6-bag mix (564 pounds of portland) and replaced a half sack (47 pounds) with fly ash or slag, an additional half hour could be added to the setting time when the concrete temperature is approximately 70° F. www.tylerley.com Typical examples include natural pozzolans (like volcanic ash), fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, rice husk ash, and silica fume. 3: Slag cement provides consistent ASR mitigation and increased concrete durability. The chemistry of the resultant slag granules and slag cement from granules is relatively consistent in chemistry within each source. Using fly ash in concrete is environmentally beneficial because it reduces the Portland cement (a major contributor of CO2) required in concrete. Therefore, the cracking potential of activated slag and fly ash concrete has to be evaluated to provide a solid theoretical basis for safe and reliable application of these materials. Fly ash is less reactive, especially during the first few days of curing when less calcium hydroxide is generated. The fly ash microstructure is shown in Figure 2(a). 3: Slag cement provides consistent ASR mitigation and increased concrete durability. This video compares the performance of fly ash, slag, and silica fume on fresh and hardened properties of concrete. “The chemical composition of fly ash depends on the source of the coal…. Silica fume is the finest with most particles averaging 0.3 µm (microns), metakaolin averages about 4 µm, Portland cement averages about 15 µm, and fly ash about 70 µm. This trend, combined with the increased need for consistent access to quality materials is expected to make the demand for slag cement to rise in upcoming years. In most cases, slag cement can be used as a 30-50% replacement to portland cement, reducing the carbon impact of the concrete. We educate customers, specifiers and other industry end-users on the varied attributes, benefits, and uses of slag cement. One option is to design a concrete mix with fly ash or slag replacing some of the portland cement. Fly ash, slag, and concrete with mixture ratios of B0C0 and B20C30 microstructure were characterized using SEM. Once a good relationship with a supplier is established, slag cement can be used at a higher percentage than fly ash. Using SCMs helps in terms of minimizing waste of resources and energy during construction. Due to its generally slower rate of hydration, fly ash also lowers the heat of hydration and is important in mass concrete structures, such as large foundations, bridges, dams and piers. Like slag, fly ash is not a new development in the technology of concrete mixtures. 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